Manual Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants

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It has more vitamin C than the orange. The fruit contains saponin, oleanolic acid, lyxopyranoside, arabopyranoside, guaijavarin, quercetin and flavonoids [ 5 , 7 , 15 ]. Ascorbic acid and citric acid are the major ingredients of guava that play important role in anti-mutagenic activity [ 16 ].

The chemical structures of quercetin and ascorbic acid have been shown in Fig. The skin of fruit contains ascorbic acid in very high amount; however, it may be destroyed by heat. The strong pleasant smell of fruit is credited to the carbonyl compounds [ 15 ]. Guava fruit contains terpenes, caryophyllene oxide and p-selinene in large quantity which produce relaxation effects [ 17 ].

The flavonoid content is higher in the methanolic extract of the guava [ 18 ].

Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants

There are 41 hydrocarbons 25 esters, 13 alcohols and 9 aromatic compounds in guava [ 19 ]. Titratable acidity and the total soluble solids are present in fruit [ 20 ]. Guajadial is also present in guava [ 21 ]. Oleanolic acid is also found in the guava leaves [ 22 ]. Leaves have high content of limonene about Leaves of guava have a lot of volatile compounds [ 24 , 25 ]. Tannin is also present in roots. Leukocyanidins, gallic acid and sterols are also present in roots.

Carbohydrates with salts are present in abundance. Tannic acid is also its part. Psidium guajava L. Medicinal plants find a very important place in medical systems almost in the entire world. These observations are reflected from traditional knowledge.

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It is well known that guava is frequently employed in numerous parts of the world for the cure of a lot of sickness like diarrhea reducing fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis, hypertension, diabetes, caries, pain relief and wounds. The countries which have a long history of using medicinal plants are also using guava at big level like Mexico, Africa, Asia and Central America. With its medicinal uses it is also used as food and in the preparation of food products.

It is also used in house construction and toys making. Guava contains high content of organic and inorganic compounds like secondary metabolites e.

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Guava has a lot of compounds which have anti cancerous activities. It has a higher number of vitamins and minerals. Phenolic compounds like flavonoids also find an important place in the guava. Lycopene and flavonoids are important antioxidants. They help in the cure of cancerous cells and help to prevent skin aging before time [ 27 ].

Guava can affect the myocardium inotropism [ 28 ]. Guava has a high antimicrobial activity. Aqueous, chloroform and methanol extract of leaves can reduce the growth of different bacteria. Due to its anti-cough activity it is recommended in the condition of cough [ 30 ]. Guava leaves have high antibacterial activity in extracts that can inhibit the growth of S. Plant leaf and bark methanolic extracts of P.


These extracts can inhibit the Bacillus and Salmonella bacteria [ 31 ]. Methanolic extract of guava contains a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Species of Bacillus and Salmonella bacteria can be controlled by these extracts. It also has anti-plaque activity due to the presence of active flavonoids compounds [ 32 ]. The flavonoid compounds and their derivatives can be isolated from the guava.


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These compounds can inhibit the growth of different bacteria in different dilutions. Due to bacteriostatic effects on pathogenic bacteria it is also used as medicine in cough, diarrhea, oral ulcers and in some swollen gums wound [ 1 , 33 ]. Aqueous and ethanol extracts show low antimicrobial activity or minimum inhibitory concentration MIC whenever methanol extract shows high MIC. Due to it high activity methanolic extract is most effective. This extract also displays anti hemolytic potential as it shows activity against hemolysis [ 34 ].

The antibacterial activity of guava is high against gram positive bacteria and moderate against the gram negative bacterial strains [ 35 ]. In it was reported that guava leaves have many compounds which act as fungistatic and bacteriostatic agents. They can stop the growth of a lot of bacteria and act as anti-viral agents. They can control the viral infections like influenza virus. They can hold and occupy the viral resistance. The actual reason of guava anti-viral activity is protein degradation ability of the guava extract [ 36 ].

Essential oil of guava also has activity against the Salmonella and S. Guava also possesses anticancer and antioxidant activities. There are a lot of compounds like Gallic acid, galangin, kaempferol, homogentisic acid and cyanidin 3-glucoside which are found in peels, seeds and pulp of guava. But it is surprising that the amount of these compounds is high in seeds and skin as compared to the pulp.


It is very clear that aqueous and methanol extract of the guava leaves inhibit the growth of bacteria and can produce a remarkable zone of inhibition. The extracts in methanol and water show maximum MIC whenever ethanol extract shows minimum anti-fungal activity.

Conclusively leaves, seeds, skin and pulp of guava have a remarkable anti-microbial activity [ 39 ]. The antimicrobial activities of alcohol fruit extracts from guava Psidium guajava were compared to those of pineapple Ananas comosus and apple Malus pumila. Eight bacterial strains including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexineri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterotoxigenic E.

The sample extracts were evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Norfloxacin and water were used as positive and as negative controls, respectively. The extracts caused the inhibition of microbes; the zones of inhibition were measured and an activity index was calculated from the mean zone sizes. It was concluded that all the fruits possess some antimicrobial potential; the highest activity index 2. The pineapple fruit displayed strong potential against all the bacteria.

The guava extracts possessed the antimicrobial potential against all the microbes with the exception of ETEC. The methanolic extracts of guava and apple were found active as compared to the ethanolic extracts while the ethanolic extracts of pineapple showed slightly larger inhibition zones. The results of this investigation show great promise for potential antimicrobial drugs [ 40 ]. The antimicrobial potential of guava can be compared to that of similar commonly used fruit like pomegranate which have been found to possess high antimicrobial properties [ 41 ]. The antimicrobial activity of various extracts prepared from pomegranate fruit peels were evaluated using both in-vitro agar diffusion and in-situ methods against some food-borne pathogens.

And the presence of active inhibitors in peels including phenolics and flavonoids were revealed by phytochemical analysis as potent constituents. The study suggested that the various extract of pomegranate can successfully control various kinds of human pathogenic bacteria [ 42 ]. There is a growing trend to use the medicinal plants as the natural resources in order to develop new drugs.

The natural products are applied to treat various viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. The genus citrus is well known for its pharmaceutical importance.

The antimicrobial activities of peels extract of two Citrus fruits viz. The peels of the fruits were separated, shade dried, powdered and extracted using methanol; finally the peel extracts were subjected to test their antifungal and antibacterial activities by poisoned food technique and agar well diffusion assay, respectively. The extracts were found effective against the tested fungal and bacterial strains. It was concluded that the peel extracts of selected citrus fruits can be used to control anthracnose of chilli caused by C. Eating fruits is very important to reduce the pressure of antibiotics; the fruits are also relatively cheaper and readily available and could greatly help the people [ 40 ].

Diarrhea is one of most common and well recognized health problem and a global issue. It is very common even in developed countries. It is estimated that about 2. Guava leaves have quercetinarabinoside and quercetin which can be isolated from leaves. Its leaves contain a compound which has morphine like action.