Guide Ontario, 1610-1985 : a political and economic history

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Drawing on the most recent research of anthropologists working in Europe, Africa, Australia, and the Americas, White places these discoveries in context, discussing the possible uses and meaning of the works, which make up one of the most fascinating and misunderstood areas of human achievement. Before Lascaux : the complex record of the Early Upper Paleolithic Book 10 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Physical anthropology and archeology by Clifford J Jolly Book 8 editions published in in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. French Paleolithic collections in the Logan Museum of Anthropology Book 3 editions published in in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Ontario, : a political and economic history by Randall White Book 4 editions published between and in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide If Ontario is the land that is ours to discover, then surely Randall White has written a book of discovery.

Ontario fulfills the need for a comprehensive text that chronicles the history of one of the founding provinces of Confederation, a province that has provided a vital legacy for Canada. Ontario is for the general reader and an invaluable text for teachers and students of Canadian and Ontario history. Randall White concentrates his account of Ontario's past and present on the political and economic events that have shaped the province.

The book is supplemented with annotated photographs and illustrations that highlight the social and cultural context.

Metropolitan Toronto : working toward the future : a contemporary portrait by Randall White Book 3 editions published in in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. The Upper Paleolithic occupation of the Perigord : a topographic approach to subsistence and settlement by Randall White Book 7 editions published between and in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Kingston can be linked to the north as well via the Kawartha Lakes waterway to Georgian Bay subsequently the Trent-Severn canal. Via what subsequently became the Rideau canal, Kingston can also be linked to the Ottawa River at Ottawa. Finally, the lower lakes can be linked to points south. From the south shore of Lake Erie, it is possible to reach the Mississippi River by canoe and portage and then to follow the Mississippi all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico.

This route was subsequently improved by the Erie Canal, and today it marks the major rail and highway transportation corridor of New York State - linked with Ontario by rail and by the multilane Queen Elizabeth Way, which runs from Fort Erie to Toronto. Ontario entered the Canadian Confederation of as Canada's most populous province, and this has 18 remained the focus of its regional identity.

From as early as the seventeenth century, however, it has been a place where political, economic, social, and cultural currents from the east, west, north, and south of North America have mixed and mingled.

The economic history of Ontario, Innis suggested in the mid, has been much influenced by a "struggle between New York and Montreal" for control over trade and development in the region north of the Great Lakes. The ultimate root of the struggle was the region's natural geography of water transportation.

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The Virgin Forest and the Canadian Shield Beyond the ubiquitous lakes and rivers, the first Europeans who arrived in Ontario in the iGoos confronted an immense virgin forest that gave much of the region an appearance quite different from the one it has now. This forest remained fundamentally intact for almost the first two centuries of European involvement in the Ontario territory.

But by the early nineteenth century, it had begun to disappear in parts of the south. It has gradually receded northward until it now survives only in the more remote north, and even there the virgin forest is not like what it once was in more southern places.

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A forest tends to grow back after it has been cut down, and there are still many trees even in the south as well as some systematically reforested tracts of land. In the most southwesterly part of Ontario, north of Lake Erie and west of Lake Ontario, the native forest is a predominantly deciduous or hardwood growth, sometimes termed "Carolinian". Lawrence" forest - a mixed hardwood and softwood or deciduous and coniferous growth, dominated by maple, birches, beeches, and oaks, with pine, hemlock, cedar, and other evergreens.

From here north to a line somewhat south of James Bay beyond which all forest vegetation tends to wither under the rigors of a sub-Arctic climate is the "boreal forest", a largely softwood or coniferous growth dominated by white and black spruce. Even the virgin forest was subject to periodic waves of destruction through fires ignited by lightning, a hazard 19 Tom Thomson, martyr of the Group of Seven, on a painting expedition in the bush, about Thomson made his living as a commercial artist at Grip Limited in Toronto. But even from Ontario's largest city one can escape into the wilderness.

The initial motivation for deliberate destruction by human hands was to clear land for agricultural settlement. In southern Ontario this had been started in a very modest way by Indians before the appearance of Europeans, though it did not begin in earnest until the late eighteenth century. By the early nineteenth century, the work of cutting down trees to feed an export lumber industry had begun as well.

Project MUSE - Ontario: The Politics of Complacency

The destruction of virgin forests seems an almost inevitable accompaniment of modern development. It happened in Europe before it happened in North America, and it is happening in such parts of the "Third World" as Nigeria and the Philippines today. Even with systematic reforestation, the regrown forest cannot match the size and splendour of its primeval state. In Ontario today, only the writings of earlier generations convey something of what has been lost.

In W. Smith observed that in the western part of what is now Metropolitan Toronto, the "trees were large and widely spaced and rose to a height of fifty feet or more without a limb. The interior of the woods was dim and cool, with hardly any underbrush, but with a deep covering of duff over the forest floor".

It would be wrong to picture all the virgin forest of Ontario as a tranquil idyll. Something of the original Carolinian hardwood forest of the southwest has survived in small patches at Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie. And journalist Robert Thomas Allen has observed: Despite its inviting and romantic appearance, this is not an easy forest to move around in. It is thickly overgrown with tangled vines and roots and the mosquitoes are murderous. Even the Indians did not move through them by choice; they followed worn trails whenever possible.

Beyond swarms of mosquitoes, much of the original Ontario forest was home for the more murderous scourge of the black fly, which can still dampen the joys of the summer in some more northern parts of the region today.

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A French Recollet Brother who journeyed up the Ottawa River, when it was still a place known to only a few Europeans in the early , wrote that the black fly was 21 "the worst martyrdom I suffered in this country". For well over years the Ontario forest did tend to hide a fundamental geological fact from even the aggressive apostles of European civilization who transformed the landscape of southern Ontario in the nineteenth century. Almost seventy per cent of the modern Ontario territory is covered by the Precambrian or Archaean very old rock of the Canadian Shield.

The Shield dominates northern Ontario. A triangular-shaped wedge of it reaches straight down into the eastern part of southern Ontario and crosses the St. The Shield is also a profound legacy of geological history that Ontario shares with the largest part of Quebec, a northeastern slice of western Canada including about half of Manitoba , and a sizable chunk of the modern Canadian Northwest Territories. As elsewhere, it brings to the region an irresistable sense of wilderness and even, in its more northerly reaches, what has been called "primitive terror".

Trees especially softwoods can grow on the Shield, though in the far north much of it is covered by swampy muskeg. Since the late nineteenth century, it has proved a treasure chest of mineral wealth.

Economic History of the 20th Century: World War I, Great Depression, Keynesian Theory (1994)

In Ontario's earliest history, it was important as a natural habitat for such easily trapped fur-bearing animals as martens, weasels, muskrats, and beavers. The Archaean rock of the Canadian Shield, however, is completely unsuited to agriculture. Even before the arrival of Europeans, it tended to resist permanent human settlement. This limitation has only gradually become clear to the people who have pioneered the mass settlement of Ontario during the past two centuries.


Systematic geological exploration of the region did not begin until the midnineteenth century. And even in Innis could say: "We are only beginning to realize the central position of the Canadian Shield. The Shield has also brought a sense of the wilderness to the regional imagination, even in an era when most people even in the north live in cities and suburbs.

The more 22 southerly extensions of the Shield eventually became "cottage country". And they inspired Ontario's first authentic school of regional landscape painters, the "Group of Seven", who began to create innovative interpretations of the scenery on the Shield during the years just before and after the First World War. The Group of Seven was dominated by men who made their living as commercial artists, working in cities.

Critics have occasionally objected that some of their paintings depict the Canadian Shield as it might appear in a Walt Disney movie. But others confront the primitive terror and often dramatic beauty of the rocky wilderness in a more direct way3. Primitive terror is an odd emotion in a modern society. There is perhaps still a sense in which modern Ontario has not quite come to grips with the geographic legacy of the Shield.

Settlement Areas off the Shield The total area of the modern Ontario territory is somewhat more than one million square kilometers or , square miles. This makes it the second largest province in Canada after Quebec, with British Columbia a close third. It also makes it considerably larger than either California or Texas in the United States or France and the United Kingdom combined, about the same size as Egypt, and more than half the size of Mexico.