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Sign in. Volume of Methods in Cell Biology describes modern tools and techniques used to study nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in diverse eukaryotic model systems including mammalian cells, Xenopus, C. The volume enables investigators to analyze nuclear pore complex structure, assembly, and dynamics; to evaluate protein and RNA trafficking through the nuclear envelope; and to design in vivo or in vitro assays appropriate to their research needs. Beyond the study of nuclear pores and transport as such, these protocols will also be helpful to scientists characterizing gene regulation, signal transduction, cell cycle, viral infections, or aging.

The NPC being one of the largest multiprotein complexes in the cell, some protocols will also be of interest for people currently characterizing other macromolecular assemblies.

The Structure of the Nuclear Pore Complex (An Update): Supplemental Video 1

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Nuclear Pores Come into Sharper Focus

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go Mieczyslaw Pokorski. Environmental Toxicology. Edward A. Selenium and Selenoproteins in Cancer. As previously mentioned, the NPC Fig. It is mainly made up of three coaxial 8-fold rotational symmetric rings assembled together, 24,25,33,42 see Fig. This 8-fold rotational symmetry can present, in some cases, 9 or fold variations which lead to changes in the dimensions of the NPC central channel and in NPC structural dimensions.

The three main rings of the NPC see Fig. A more recent work developed at the molecular resolution showed a more detailed nucleoporin connection between the NPC and the NE. The cytoplasmic ring works as the initial filter of the NPC for molecules and cargos with the help of the cytoplasmic filaments that serve as cargo receptors. The nuclear ring is submerged in the nucleoplasm and is directly connected with the spoke ring as in the case of the cytoplasmic ring.

A specific structure of filaments of 10 nm diameter, known as the nuclear basket, grows from the nuclear ring and ends in a smaller ring called the distal ring. These studies provide a thorough overview of the molecular arrangements of the most important Nups according to their main tasks, both structural and translocational. In particular, the review in ref.

Differences in the structure and diameter of the transport channels are also reported in ref. In this study, the authors show an ultra high-resolution 3D reconstruction of the X. In their work, X. These changes caused modifications in both the central channel diameter and the secondary channels, which the authors demonstrated to be around the central channel ring, and of a smaller diameter. There are thus still a number of unanswered questions regarding the NPC.

This perviousness of the NE is possible thanks to the presence of nanopores, called nuclear pore complexes NPCs , distributed along the NE, which are responsible for selecting which molecules and cargos are allowed to pass through the NE 60 Fig.

Ultrastructure of the plant NPC

These NPCs Fig. These nucleoporins form a structure that acts as: i a mechanical scaffold between the inner and outer nuclear membranes of the NE by joining both of them 34,61 and ii a selective filter for the import—export transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The transport of small molecules normally occurs via passive diffusion, whereas larger molecules are actively transported cargos. The molecular exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and the role of the NPC in nucleocytoplasmic transport, has gained considerable attention in the last decade.

Along the NPC, there are two different types of channels where the molecular exchange takes place, see Fig. The role of the permeability barrier played by the nucleoporins has been demonstrated in a number of recently published works. The authors of ref. The strong influence of the FG-repeats, and therefore the permeability barrier of the central channel, is also studied in ref. These studies also propose a model of translocation in which the FG-repeats are incorporated as a selectivity filter that restricts passage through the central channel.

In ref.