Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country — it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea , about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum , it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland ; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters.
The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire , under whose rule it remained from the midth to the late 19th centuries.
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The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy , which lasted up until World War I. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia , the republic proclaimed independence in , followed by the Bosnian War , lasting until late Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third.
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A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group.
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April , when it received a Membership Action Plan ; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio , a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the midth century describing the "small land" of "Bosona".
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ". Hum Zahumlje , was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the s, which remerged in the s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On initial proclamation of independence in , the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians.
Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e. Lilium bosniacum Lilium bosniacum is a lily native to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It's known as Zlatni Ljiljan and Bosanski Ljiljan. Some results of molecular studies support it as an infraspecific taxon of Lilium carniolicum. Lilium bosniacum, together with Lilium albanicum and Lilium jankae have been treated as varieties of Lilium carniolicum. However, extensive DNA-analyses have shown.
Lilium bosniacum Beck ex Fritsch Section 3b Syn. Stem: 30—90 cm. Leaves: densely scattered, horizontal with tips curved upwards, narrowly lanceolate with hairy margins. Flowers: 1—6 in a raceme , fragrant.
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Seeds with delayed hypogeal germination. Origin: Bosnia and Herzegovina; the golden lily is the symbol of Bosniak people and a heraldic national symbol of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Balkans The Balkans known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast; the Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, the Black Sea on the east and northeast.
The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined; the highest point of the Balkans is 2, metres, in the Rila mountain range.
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The concept of the Balkan peninsula was created by the German geographer August Zeune in , who mistakenly considered the Balkan Mountains the dominant mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea; the term of Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey in the 19th century, the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe.
It had a geopolitical rather than a geographical definition, further promoted during the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the early 20th century. The definition of the Balkan peninsula's natural borders do not coincide with the technical definition of a peninsula and hence modern geographers reject the idea of a Balkan peninsula, while scholars discuss the Balkans as a region; the term has acquired a stigmatized and pejorative meaning related to the process of Balkanization , hence the rather used alternative term for the region is Southeast Europe.
The word Balkan comes from Ottoman Turkish balkan'chain of wooded mountains'; the origin of the Turkic word is obscure.
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From classical antiquity through the Middle Ages , the Balkan Mountains were called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned into a mountain by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse name scheme has been suggested. A third possibility is that "Haemus" derives from the Greek word "haema" meaning'blood'.
Zeus injured Typhon with a thunder bolt and Typhon's blood fell on the mountains, from which they got their name; the earliest mention of the name appears in an early 14th-century Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The first attested time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter sent in to Pope Innocent VIII by Buonaccorsi Callimaco, an Italian humanist and diplomat ; the Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from There has been no other documented usage of the word to refer to the region before that, although other Turkic tribes had settled in or were passing through the Peninsula.
English traveler John Morritt introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th-century, other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea; the concept of the "Balkans" was created by the German geographer August Zeune in , who mistakenly considered it as the dominant central mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea. During the s, "Balkan became the preferred although not yet exclusive term alongside Haemus among British travelers Among Russian travelers not so burdened by classical toponymy, Balkan was the preferred term"; the term was not used in geographical literature until the midth century because then scientists like Carl Ritter warned that only the part South of the Balkan Mountains can be considered as a peninsula and considered it to be renamed as "Greek peninsula".
Another reason it was not accepted as the definition of European Turkey had a similar land extent.
However, after the Congress of Berlin there was a political need for a new term and the Balkans was revitalized, but in the maps the northern border was in Serbia and Montenegro without Greece , while Yugoslavian maps included Croatia and Bosnia; the term Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey , the political borders of former Ottoman Empire provinces. Chicago Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois , as well as the third most populous city in the United States.
With an estimated population of 2,,, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County , the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area.
Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan , Chicago was incorporated as a city in near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century.
After the Great Chicago Fire of , which destroyed several square miles and left more than , homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world. Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement , the steel-framed skyscraper.
O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in , made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15, people in 32 cities.
Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz , soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago , Northwestern University , the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion , known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around in a memoir. Henri Joutel , in his journal of , noted that the eponymous wild " garlic " grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town , Second City , the City of the Big Shoulders , which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the midth century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi , who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable.
Du Sable arrived in the s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago". In , following the Northwest Indian War , an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. Louis ; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in On August 12, , the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about Check Yourself 2 1.
Find the primary directed angle of each angle, using the same unit of measurement. Consider the right triangle in the figure. The table shows the trigonometric ratios for the acute angle. The figure shows a right triangle. Write the six trigonometric ratios for the angle. We know that any ratio can be expanded or simplified by multiplying its numerator and denominator by the same non-zero number.
In other words, the sides are in proportion. We b b say that these triangles are similar. Two right triangles are shown below. Find the trigonometric ratios for the angle in each triangle and show that they are equal. The ratios are the same because the sides are in proportion: these are similar triangles. Find the sine, tangent and 3 cotangent ratios of the same angle. Solution We do not know the lengths of the sides of the triangle.
However, we know that any right triangle with angle will be similar to this triangle. So we can use the numer2 ator and denominator of the given ratio as two sides 3 of the triangle, as shown in the figure. Find the sine, cosine and cotangent ratios of the same angle. One leg of an isosceles right triangle is 1 unit long. Find all the trigonometric ratios of one of the two equal acute angles in the triangle.