Jurnal Hukum Positum merupakan sarana publikasi bagi kajian-kajian konseptual dan hasil penelitian di bidang hukum dan ditujukan untuk pengembangan ilmu hukum, menghasilkan temuan dan pendapat hukum yang orisinil dan baru novelties, new to science. Naskah dapat berupa kajian konseptual dan hasil penelitian di bidang hukum pidana, hukum perdata, hukum tata negara, hukum bisnis, hukum ketenagakerjaan, hukum lingkungan, hukum adat, hukum Islam, hukum internasional, dan sebagainya.
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Naskah merupakan pendapat pribadi peneliti dan tidak mewakili pendapat Fakultas Hukum Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang. Jurnal tersebut merupakan hasil penelitian serta kajian gagasan konseptual di bidang ilmu hukum terhadap isu-isu hukum, kosenseptual dalam tataran teori dan praktik, putusan pengadilan, analisis kebijakan pemerintah dan pemerintahan daerah serta lainnya. Isi jurnal mencakup bidang keilmuan Agroteknologi meliputi Pemuliaan Tanaman,Ilmu Benih, Agronomi, Hortikultura, Hama Penyakit Tanaman, Ilmu Tanah, Bioteknologi, crop dataran rendah, crop dataran tinggi dan keilmuan pertanian secara luas.
Jurnal ini diterbitkan sebagai sarana dan wadah para dosen, ilmuan, peneliti maupun pakar bidang pertanian mempublikasikan hasil-hasil penelitiannya untuk menunjang Tugas dan Program Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi secara Umum. Kemudian tidak ada penerbitan dan diterbitkan kembali pada Juli dengan Vol. The commitment to teaching. And the group tensions: from competition, authoritarianism and individualism when sharing experiences, when searching together for new knowledges. Am I a teacher-researcher? What does it mean to be a teacher-researcher?
What are the parameters for gauging a teacher-researcher? Is it possible to be a teacher-researcher in the current work conditions? Are we? The second set of themes about the nature of the research and each one's conditions in it emerged as the group began to realize that the research we were carrying out was different from the traditional study in which the university researchers go to the schools to collect data and then proceed to interpret them without the participation of the school professionals.
Although they valued our procedures, the school professionals sometimes expected us to present solutions to their problems and difficulties. The choice from the beginning of the project to utilize a qualitative research approach engendered at first some perplexities in the group of teachers, when they asked themselves what kind of research was this, so different from the traditional concept of research in which " the academics arrived at school, observed, gathered data and information, asked questions, and then left, leaving at most a few recipes for teachers' actions and usually the feeling that all they did was suspicious and all they said was incomprehensible to us" testimony.
The uneasiness then remained: what kind of research are we doing? Are we teachers-researchers? If we are, how do we differ from university researchers? They have better salaries; they have the obligation to produce research.
CONDUCTING ACTION RESEARCH IN INDONESIA: ILLUSTRATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS | Burns | Indonesian JELT
If they do research, they can solve questions that we cannot. But if they are going to solve our problems, they are going to disparage our work!? Once such perception had been overcome, and the partnership relations had been established, there remained the task of clarifying our understanding of what was the research we were carrying out. For that, it was important to recover the objectives of the Project Collaborative action research. To make explicit the collaborative action research from the study carried out we went back to its objectives and fieldwork data and proceeded to a cross study between the characteristics of collaborative research as presented by Zeichner, and the contributions of Thiollent, when the characteristics, the objectives, and aspects of action research are introduced.
We also relied on external evaluation of this study Indeed, the objectives of the research Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education were to articulate the professional development of the teachers involved; to analyze the processes of construction of the pedagogical knowledges by the school team; to stimulate changes in the school organizational culture; to contribute to public policies of teachers' continuing education.
It assumed that every teacher is capable of producing knowledge on teaching. We expected, as a result from the collaborative action of the research, pedagogical changes that engendered the valuation of work, personal growth, professional commitment, development of a culture of analysis and of participative organizational practices.
The methodological paths followed allowed a negotiated common experience throughout the process, and can be summarized as follows:.
At this stage the teachers began to see themselves as authors, resulting in the increase of self-esteem and professional qualification, and complete engagement in the project. With the issues raised by Zeichner, , text where collaborative research is spelled out, we carried out a work of retrospective reflection about the first two years of the project, asking teachers to establish a dialogue between, on one hand, the objectives, assumptions, the methodology of the project, and the experiences so far, and, on the other, the questions put forward by the author.
Questions that guided the discussion, and the testimonies from the teachers are as follows:. What are the meaning and the relevance of the research? It allowed "to expand the knowledge and the vision of the practice; to question the practice and the actions; to make the teacher more demanding with himself, with students and with colleagues. It was that practice that 'matched' the theory i. We became authors". Is there collaboration between teachers those from the school and those from the FEUSP , and between teachers at school?
Today we build our practice playing different roles; a new valuation of the roles of the whole group. Not recognizing the individual paces and styles generates conflict: how do we work on that within the group? It is important to distinguish 'respect for the other' from 'recognizing the other'. In the latter perspective there is an attitude of incorporating, of doing together. There is genuine collaboration". The project has offered elements for the individual projects and those of the subgroups?
By analyzing the movement of the collaborative research in this school it was also possible to configure it as an action research, from its characteristics, objectives, and aspects, such as defined by Thiollent, About the characteristics of action research, we transcribe below excerpts from the text Action Research and the 'Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education' Project , prepared by the teachers coordinators of the Project at the CEFAM, based on the fieldwork data:.
We noticed that changes in the development of the Project are in response to needs and to the resolution of everyday problems that emerged, which, after being considered and reflected upon, steered the research. For example:. In this item we realized that there is:.
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The knowledge produced is applied in the school itself. As far as this aspect is concerned, we observed that we accomplished:.
The authors conclude the text with indications about what advances should be made:. Camargo; Moraes; Molina; Leite, Recalling that the text above was prepared after the first three years of the study, the majority of the needed advances pointed out were achieved by the end of the project in Regarding the objectives of action research, still according to Thiollent, , the following aspects could be analyzed:. Pertinent examples from the research are: requests from teachers; their representations and that of students and of society about the teaching profession, about the students, about pedagogical issues; their capacity for action or mobilization, etc;.
According to the author the relation between those two objectives is variable. Generally speaking, greater knowledge leads to a better performance of the action. However, in the case of the present research, we observed that the daily demands of the practice, rooted in government policies, often appeared as limiting the time for knowledge.
Researchers had then to take special care to keep the balance between the practical objectives and those knowledge-related during the study. This objective was present throughout the research process, perceived by the identification of other CEFAMs, in the socialization meetings, of the issues and propositions made the teachers from the CEFAM "Ayres de Moura". Also, in the texts produced by the teachers involved and presented in national scientific meetings, there was a systematization of the knowledge generated from the fieldwork data, which contribute to the expansion of the field.
Thiollent still points out the following aspects that give shape to the methodology of action research:. Examining these aspects with the group and using them as categories of analysis of the process carried out up until then we concluded that we were actually developing an action research. The Report of the external evaluation to which we submitted the projects belonging to FAPESP's Improvement of Teaching Program 14 confirms the theoretical and methodological framework of collaborative action research present in the projects, and develops an analysis that extends the understanding of its meaning, of its potential and of its difficulties, pointing to the need to widen and deepen theoretical questions associated with this modality of qualitative research.
Under this view, maintaining the theoretical and methodological coherence is indispensable in terms of group alertness. Critical-collaborative action research. Having configured, at last, the collaborative action research in the process of the study Qualification of the Public Teaching , there remained still one issue: would this be a critical-collaborative action research? Supported by Kincheloe, , Franco, presents the following consideration when analyzing what defines a collaborative action research as critical:.
When the search for transformation is requested by the reference group to the team of researchers, the study has been classified as collaborative action research, where the function of the researcher will be of taking part and making scientific a process of change previously started by the members of the group.
The research was carried out in response to the request of a group of teachers from the school, which faced complex, conflicting and unstable situations, situations that characterize the teaching activity. The university researchers carried out with the teachers and other members of the institution a collaborative action research whose purpose was of creating a culture of analysis of the practices at school, with a view to its transformation by the teacher with the help of university teachers.
If such transformation is perceived as necessary based on the initial work of the researcher with the group, as a consequence of a process that values the cognitive construction of experience supported on collective critical reflection, with a view to the emancipation of the subjects, and from the conditions that the group feels as oppressive, then this research begins to assume the character of being critical, and thus the classification of critical action research has been employed. The study started from the assumption that teachers are capable of developing a method for the problematization, analysis and investigation of the practical reality of teaching, grounded on their previous experiences, their initial education, other people's experiences in the school context, and on the existing theories to find solutions for the demands that practice places upon them, and thence produce knowledge.
The development of this method does not happen spontaneously. It requires collaboration. Thus, the methodology of collaborative action research imposed itself as the more adequate. One of the leading factors that gathered the team of university researchers around the proposition and conduction of the research was the commitment to carry out a study in a public school , and such that the study had as its characteristic to be conducted with the teachers and not just about them , and also that it was carried out with the school community, involving teachers, principals and coordinators.
That is so because our assumption is that one of the most valuable kinds of continuing education is the one that takes the school contexts as objects of analysis.
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This favors the theory-practice relation, since in traditional modes of continuing education, such as courses and various training, the mediation between those modalities and the school contexts has not been established, resulting in an investment targeted more at the professionalization of the teacher and less at the changes of institutional practices necessary for the improvement of the results of schooling. The choice of configuring the research in the school space unveiled the complete problem involving the school as an organization within a given system in this case, the state public system , pointing towards important questions related to public and governmental education policies.